This study aimed to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions of anaprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models.
The PBPK models for anaprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin were constructed using the GastroPlus™ software (Version 9.7) based on the physicochemical data and PK parameters obtained from literature, then were optimized and validated in healthy subjects to predict the plasma concentration-time profiles of these three drugs and assess the predictive performance of each model. According to the analysis of the properties of each drug, the developed and validated models were applied to evaluate potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of anaprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin.
The developed PBPK models properly described the pharmacokinetics of anaprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin well, and all predicted PK parameters (Cmax,ss, AUC0-τ,ss) ratios were within 2.0-fold of the observed values. Furthermore, the application of these models to predict the anaprazole-clarithromycin and anaprazole-amoxicillin DDIs demonstrates their good performance, with the predicted DDI Cmax,ss ratios and DDI AUC0-τ,ss ratios within 1.25-fold of the observed values, and all predicted DDI Cmax,ss, and AUC0-τ,ss ratios within 2.0-fold. The simulated results show no need to adjust the dosage when co-administered with anaprazole in patients undergoing eradication therapy of H. pylori infection since the dose remained in the therapeutic range.
The whole-body PBPK models of anaprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin were built and qualified, which can predict DDIs that are mediated by gastric pH change and inhibition of metabolic enzymes, providing a mechanistic understanding of the DDIs observed in the clinic of clarithromycin, amoxicillin with anaprazole.
By Ningxia Liang, Sufeng Zhou, Tongtong Li, Zeru Zhang, Tangping Zhao, Run Li, Mingfeng Li, Feng Shao, Guangji Wang, Jianguo Sun