Assessing and mitigating pH-mediated DDI risks in drug development – formulation approaches and clinical considerations

Publication: Drug Metab Rev
Software: GastroPlus®


pH-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDI) is a prevalent DDI in drug development, especially for weak base compounds with highly pH-dependent solubility. FDA has released a guidance on the evaluation of pH-mediated DDI assessments using in vitro testing and clinical studies. Currently, there is no common practice of ways of testing across the academia and industry. The development of biopredictive method and physiologically-based biopharmaceutics modeling (PBBM) approaches to assess acid-reducing agent (ARA)-DDI have been proven with accurate prediction and could decrease drug development burden, inform clinical design and potentially waive clinical studies. Formulation strategies and careful clinical design could help mitigate the pH-mediated DDI to avoid more clinical studies and label restrictions, ultimately benefiting the patient. In this review paper, a detailed introduction on biorelevant dissolution testing, preclinical and clinical study requirement and PBPK modeling approaches to assess ARA-DDI are described. An improved decision tree for pH-mediated DDI is proposed. Potential mitigations including clinical or formulation strategies are discussed.

By Di Wu, Jiaying Liu, Erickson M. Paragas, Jaydeep Yadav, Theresa Aliwarga, Tycho Heimbach & M. Sebastian Escotet-Espinoza