Model-informed drug discovery and development (MID3) shows great advantages in facilitating drug development. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model is one of the powerful computational approaches of MID3, and the emerging field of virtual bioequivalence is well recognized to be the future of the physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Based on the translational link between in vitro, in silico, and in vivo, virtual bioequivalence study can evaluate the similarity and potential difference of pharmacokinetic and clinical performance between test and reference formulations. With the aid of virtual bioequivalence study, the pivotal information of clinical trials can be provided to streamline the development for both new and generic drugs. However, a regulatory framework of virtual bioequivalence study has not reached its full maturity. Therefore, this article aims to present an overview of the current status of bioequivalence study, identify the framework of virtual bioequivalence studies for oral drugs, and also discuss the future opportunities of virtual bioequivalence in supporting the waiver and optimization of in vivo clinical trials.
By Fan Zhang, Ranran Jia, Huitao Gao, Xiaofei Wu, Bo Liu & Hongyun Wang