Optimization of Personalized Amlodipine Dosing Strategies for Children Based on Pharmacokinetic Data from Chinese Male Adults and PBPK Modeling

Authors: Han X, Hong X, Li X, Wang Y, Zheng A
Publication: Children
Software: GastroPlus®


For children, a special population who are continuously developing, a reasonable dosing strategy is the key to clinical therapy. Accurate dose predictions can help maximize efficacy and minimize pain in pediatrics. Methods: This study collected amlodipine pharmacokinetics (PK) data from 236 Chinese male adults and established a physiological pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for adults using GastroPlus™. A PBPK model of pediatrics is constructed based on hepatic-to-body size and enzyme metabolism, used similar to the AUC0-∞ to deduce the optimal dosage of amlodipine for children aged 1–16 years. A curve of continuous administration for 2-, 6-, 12-, 16-, and 25-year-olds and a personalized administration program for 6-year-olds were developed. Results: The results show that children could not establish uniform allometric amplification rules. The optimal doses were 0.10 mg·kg−1 for ages 2–6 years and −0.0028 × Age + 0.1148 (mg/kg) for ages 7–16 years, r = 0.9941. The trend for continuous administration was consistent among different groups. In a 6-year-old child, a maintenance dose of 2.30 mg was used to increase the initial dose by 2.00 mg and the treatment dose by 1.00 mg to maintain stable plasma concentrations. Conclusions: A PBPK model based on enzyme metabolism can accurately predict the changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of amlodipine in pediatrics. It can be used to support the optimization of clinical treatment plans in pediatrics.

by Xiaolu Han, Xiaoxuan Hong, Xianfu Li, Yuxi Wang, Zengming Wang, and Aiping Zheng