The primary objective of this work was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of systemic clofarabine (clo-fara) in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients receiving either nucleoside monotherapy or a dual nucleoside analog preparative regimen. Fifty-one children (median age, 4.9 years; range, .25 to 14.9 years) undergoing allogeneic HCT for a variety of malignant and nonmalignant disorders underwent PK assessment. Plasma samples were collected over the 4 to 5 days of clo-fara treatment and quantified for clo-fara, using a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to develop the population PK model, including identification of covariates that influenced drug disposition. In agreement with previously published models, a 2-compartment PK model with first-order elimination best described the PK of clo-fara. Final parameter estimates for clo-fara were consistent with previous reports and were as follows: clearance (CL), 23 L/h/15 kg; volume of the central compartment, 42 L/15 kg; volume of peripheral compartment, 47 L/15 kg; and intercompartmental CL, 9.8 L/h/15 kg. Unexplained variability was acceptable at 33%, and the additive residual error (reflective of the assay) was estimated to be 0.36 ng/mL. Patient-specific factors significantly impacting clo-fara CL included actual body weight and age. The covariate model was able to estimate clo-fara CL with good precision in children spanning a wide age range from infancy to early adulthood and demonstrates the need for variable dosing in children of different ages. For example, the dose required for a 6-month and 1-year old was approximately 43% and 17% lower, respectively, than the typical 40 mg/m2dose to achieve the median AUC0-24of 1.04 mg·h/L in the study population. Despite the known renal elimination of clo-fara, no significant clinical parameters for renal function were retained in the final model (P> .05). Coadministration of fludarabine with clo-fara did not alter the CL of clo-fara (P> .05). These results will help inform individualized dosing strategies for clo-fara to improve clinical outcomes and limit drug-related adverse events in children undergoing HCT.
By, Hechuan Wang, Aksana Jones, Christopher C Dvorak, Liusheng Huang, Paul Orchard, Vijay Ivaturi, Janel Long-Boyle