Selective COX-2 inhibitors after bariatric surgery: Celecoxib, etoricoxib and etodolac post-bariatric solubility/dissolution and pharmacokinetics

Publication: Int J Pharm
Software: GastroPlus®


Anatomical/physiological gastrointestinal changes after bariatric surgery may influence the fate of orally administered drugs. Since non-selective NSAIDs are not well-tolerated post-surgery, selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors may be important for these patients. In this work we investigated celecoxibetoricoxib and etodolac, for impaired post-bariatric solubility/dissolution and absorption. Solubility was studied in-vitro, and ex-vivo in aspirated gastric contents from patients pre- vs. post-surgery. Dissolution was studied in conditions simulating pre- vs. post-surgery stomach. Finally, the experimental solubility data were used in physiologically-based biopharmaceutics model (PBBM) (GastroPlus®) to simulate pre- vs. post-surgery celecoxib/etoricoxib/etodolac pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles. For etoricoxib and etodolac (but not celecoxib), pH-dependent solubility was demonstrated: etoricoxib solubility decreased ∼1000-fold, and etodolac solubility increased 120-fold, as pH increased from 1 to 7, which was also confirmed ex-vivo. Hampered etoricoxib dissolution and improved etodolac dissolution post-surgery was revealed. Tablet crushing, clinically recommended after surgery, failed to improve post-bariatric dissolution. PBBM simulations revealed significantly impaired etoricoxib absorption post-surgery across all conditions; for instance, 79% lower Cmax and 53% decreased AUC was simulated post-gastric bypass procedure, after single 120 mg dose. Celecoxib and etodolac maintained unaffected absorption after bariatric surgery. This mechanistically-based analysis suggests to prefer the acidic drug etodolac or the neutral celecoxib as selective COX-2 inhibitors, over the basic drug etoricoxib, after bariatric surgery.

By Daniel Porat, Oleg Dukhno, Mazal Partook-Maccabi, Ella Vainer, Sandra Cvijić gastroplus, pbpk modeling, pbbm, physiologically based biopharmaceutics, disease populations, obesity, mechanistic absorption, acat, formulation development, Arik Dahan