A pharmacokinetic program that allows individualization of drug dosage regimens through the Bayesian method is described. The program, which is designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41 CV calculator, is based upon the one-compartment open model with either instantaneous or zero-order absorption. Individualized estimation of the patient’s kinetic parameters (clearance and volume of distribution) is performed by analyzing the plasma levels measured in the patient as well as considering the population data of the drug. After estimating the individual kinetic parameters by the Bayesian method, the program predicts the dosage regimen that will elicit the desired peak and trough plasma levels at steady state. For comparison purposes, the least-squares estimates for clearance and volume of distribution are calculated, and dosage prediction can also be made on the basis of the least-squares estimates. The least-squares estimates can be used to calculate population pharmacokinetic parameters according to the Standard Two-Stage method. Several examples of clinical use of the program are presented. The examples refer to patients with classic hemophilia who were treated with Factor VIII concentrates. In these patients, the Bayesian kinetic parameters of Factor VIII have been estimated through the calculator program. The Bayesian parameter estimates generated by the HP-41 have been compared with those determined by a Bayesian program (ADVISE) designed for microcomputers.
By, Ruffo S, Messori A, Thaddeus H Grasela, Longo G, Donati-Cori G, Matucci M, Morfini M, Tendi E