Physiologically-based biopharmaceutics modeling (PBBM) has potential to accelerate the development of new drug and formulations. An important application of PBBM is for special populations such as pediatrics that have pharmacokinetics dependent on the maturation process. Lamotrigine (LTG) is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) II drug and is widely prescribed. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the biopharmaceutics risk of the low-soluble drug LTG when the ontogeny on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) physiological parameters are considered. An oral physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model and a PBBM were developed and verified using GastroPlus™ software for both adults and children (2–12 years old, 12–52 kg). The biopharmaceutics properties and GIT physiological parameters were evaluated by sensitivity analysis. High doses were simulated assuming a worst case scenario, that is, the dose of 200 mg for adults and 5 mg/kg (up to the maximum of 200 mg) for 2-year-old children. Although several authors have suggested that ontogeny may have an effect on gastrointestinal fluid volume, our study found no evidence of interference between fluid and dose volumes with in vivo dissolution of LTG. The most impactful parameter was found to be the gastric transit time. Therefore, the hypothesis is developed to examine whether LTG exhibits characteristics of a BCS II classification in vitro while showing BCS I–like behavior in vivo. This hypothesis could act as a base for conducting novel studies on model-informed precision dosing, tailored to specific populations and clinical conditions. In addition, it could be instrumental in assessing the influence of various release profiles on in vivo performance for both adult and pediatric populations.
By Edilainy Rizzieri Caleffi-Marchesini, Amanda Antunes Herling, Julia Macente, Rodolfo Hernandes Bonan, Priscila de Freitas Lima, Rafaela Moreno, Veriano Alexandre, Nitin Bharat Charbe, Fernanda Belincanta Borghi-Pangoni, Rodrigo Cristofoletti, Andréa Diniz