An In Vitro–In Vivo Simulation Approach for the Prediction of Bioequivalence

Authors: Vlachou M, Karalis V
Publication: Materials
Software: PKanalix®
Division: Lixoft


The aim of this study was to develop a new in vitro–in vivo simulation (IVIVS) approach in order to predict the outcome of a bioequivalence study. The predictability of the IVIVS procedure was evaluated through its application in the development process of a new generic product of amlodipine/irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide. The developed IVIVS methodology is composed of three parts: (a) mathematical description of in vitro dissolution profiles, (b) mathematical description of in vivo kinetics, and (c) development of joint in vitro–in vivo simulations. The entire programming was done in MATLAB® and all created scripts were validated through other software. The IVIVS approach can be implemented for any number of subjects, clinical design, variability and can be repeated for thousands of times using Monte Carlo techniques. The probability of success of each scenario is recorded and finally, an overall assessment is made in order to select the most suitable batch. Alternatively, if the IVIVS shows reduced probability of BE success, the R&D department is advised to reformulate the product. In this study, the IVIVS approach predicted successfully the BE outcome of the three drugs. During the development of generics, the IVIVS approach can save time and expenses

By Marilena Vlachou and Vangelis Karalis