An Insight into the Metabolism of 2,5-Disubstituted Monotetrazole Bearing Bisphenol Structures: Emerging Bisphenol A Structural Congeners

Publication: Molecules
Software: ADMET Predictor®


The non-estrogenic 2,5-disubstituted tetrazole core-bearing bisphenol structures (TbB) are being researched as emerging structural congeners of Bisphenol A, an established industrial endocrine disruptor. However, there is no understanding of TbB’s adverse effects elicited via metabolic activation. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the metabolism of TbB ligands, with in silico results serving as a guide for in vitro studies. The Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) inhibitory assay of TbB ligands on the seven human liver CYP isoforms (i.e., 1A2, 2A6, 2D6, 2C9, 2C8, 2C19, and 3A4) using human liver microsomes (HLM) revealed TbB ligand 223-3 to have a 50% inhibitory effect on all the CYP isoforms at a 10 μM concentration, except 1A2. The TbB ligand 223-10 inhibited 2B6 and 2C8, whereas the TbB ligand 223-2 inhibited only 2C9. The first-order inactivity rate constant (Kobsobs) studies indicated TbB ligands 223-3, 223-10 to be time-dependent (TD) inhibitors, whereas the TbB 223-2 ligand did not show such a significant effect. The 223-3 exhibited a TD inhibition for 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2 with Kobsobs values of 0.0748, 0.0306, and 0.0333 min1−1, respectively. On the other hand, the TbB ligand 223-10 inhibited 2C9 in a TD inhibition manner with Kobsobs value 0.0748 min1−1. However, the TbB ligand 223-2 showed no significant TD inhibition effect on the CYPs. The 223-2 ligand biotransformation pathway by in vitro studies in cryopreserved human hepatocytes suggested the clearance via glucuronidation with the predominant detection of only 223-2 derived mono glucuronide as a potential inactive metabolite. The present study demonstrated that the 223-2 ligand did not elicit any significant adverse effect via metabolic activation, thus paving the way for its in vivo drug–drug interactions (DDI) studies.

By Umesh B. Gadgoli, Yelekere C. Sunil Kumar and Deepak Kumar