Additional non-animal methods are urgently needed to meet regulatory and animal welfare goals. TTC is a broadly used risk assessment tool. TTC based on external dose has limited utility for multi-route exposure and some types of structure activity relationship assessments. An internal TTC (iTTC), where thresholds are based on blood concentration, would extend the applicability of TTC. While work is on-going to develop robust iTTC thresholds, we propose an interim conservative iTTC. Specifically, an interim iTTC of 1 μM, supported by the published experience of the pharmaceutical industry, a literature review of non-drug chemical/receptor interactions, and analysis of ToxCast™ data. ToxCast™ data were used to explore activity versus the 1 μM interim iTTC and recommendations for the analysis and interpretation of HTS data. Test concentration-based points of departure were classified to identify quality of fit to the Hill Model. We identified, for exclusion from the approach, estrogen receptor and androgen receptor targets as potent chemical/receptor interactions potentially associated with low dose exposure to non-pharmaceutical active ingredients in addition to the original TTC exclusions. With these exclusions, we conclude that a 1 μM plasma concentration is unlikely to be associated with significant biological effects from chemicals not intentionally designed for biological activity.
By Karen L. Blackburn, Gregory Carr, Jane L. Rose, Bastian G.Selman