Assessment of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target attainment of gemifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae
The treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections has been complicated by the emergence of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although traditionally rare, a growing concern for fluoroquinolone-resistant pneumococci has surfaced. More pharmacodynamically potent antimicrobial agents are clearly needed, as the use of such agents may further optimize clinical and microbiological outcomes for patients and slow the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance. For fluoroquinolones, the ratio of the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve of the agent to the minimum inhibitory concentration of the agent against the pathogen for the fraction of unbound drug is the major pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) measure correlating with efficacy in nonclinical models and infected patients. A 2500-patient Monte Carlo simulation, utilizing a patient-population pharmacokinetic model derived from phase 3 registration trials and the minimum inhibitory concentration distribution for gemifloxacin against 3117 clinical strains of S. pneumoniae, was carried out to estimate the probability of gemifloxacin attaining exposures associated with efficacy. The overall probability PK-PD target attainment for gemifloxacin was greater than 0.99. Gemifloxacin is among the most pharmacodynamically potent fluoroquinolones and is more potent than ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin. Preferential use of pharmacodynamically potent agents over other alternatives may lead to improved clinical outcomes and decreased selection of fluoroquinolone-resistant pneumococci.
By, Owens RC Jr, Bhavnani SM, Ambrose PG