Ceftolozane-tazobactam, a combination of the novel antipseudomonal cephalosporin ceftolozane and the well-established extended-spectrum β-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam, is approved for treating complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) in adults. To determine doses likely to be safe and efficacious in phase 2 pediatric trials for the same indications, single-dose ceftolozane-tazobactam plasma pharmacokinetic data from a recently completed phase 1 trial in pediatric patients (birth to <18 years old) with proven/suspected Gram-negative bacterial infections, along with pharmacokinetic data from 12 adult studies, were integrated into a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) analysis. Two-compartment linear models with first-order elimination described the concentration-time profiles of ceftolozane and tazobactam in pediatric patients well. Renal function and body weight were identified to be significant predictors of ceftolozane-tazobactam pharmacokinetics. Renal function, as measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), significantly affected the clearance of both ceftolozane and tazobactam. Body weight significantly affected clearance and the distribution volume, also of both ceftolozane and tazobactam. Patients with infections had a 32.3% lower tazobactam clearance than healthy volunteers. Using the final popPK models, simulations of various dosing regimens were conducted to assess each regimen’s plasma exposure and the probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment. Based on these simulations, the following doses are recommended for further clinical evaluation in phase 2 pediatric trials for cUTI and cIAI (in patients with an eGFR of ≥50 ml/min/1.73 m2 only): for children ≥12 years old, 1.5 g ceftolozane-tazobactam (1 g ceftolozane with 0.5 g tazobactam), and for neonates/very young infants, infants, and children <12 years old, 20/10 mg/kg of body weight ceftolozane-tazobactam, both via a 1-h intravenous infusion every 8 h.
By Yogesh Patel