Characterization of Pediatric Rectal Absorption, Drug Disposition, and Sedation Level for Midazolam Gel Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling

Publication: Mol Pharm
Software: GastroPlus®


Abstract Image

This study aims to explore and characterize the role of pediatric sedation via rectal route. A pediatric physiologically based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model of midazolam gel was built and validated to support dose selection for pediatric clinical trials. Before developing the rectal PBPK model, an intravenous PBPK model was developed to determine drug disposition, specifically by describing the ontogeny model of the metabolic enzyme. Pediatric rectal absorption was developed based on the rectal PBPK model of adults. The improved Weibull function with permeability, surface area, and fluid volume parameters was used to extrapolate pediatric rectal absorption. A logistic regression model was used to characterize the relationship between the free concentrations of midazolam and the probability of sedation. All models successfully described the PK profiles with absolute average fold error (AAFE) < 2, especially our intravenous PBPK model that extended the predicted age to preterm. The simulation results of the PD model showed that when the free concentrations of midazolam ranged from 3.9 to 18.4 ng/mL, the probability of “Sedation” was greater than that of “Not-sedation” states. Combined with the rectal PBPK model, the recommended sedation doses were in the ranges of 0.44–2.08 mg/kg for children aged 2–3 years, 0.35–1.65 mg/kg for children aged 4–7 years, 0.24–1.27 mg/kg for children aged 8–12 years, and 0.20–1.10 mg/kg for adolescents aged 13–18 years. Overall, this model mechanistically quantified drug disposition and effect of midazolam gel in the pediatric population, accurately predicted the observed clinical data, and simulated the drug exposure for sedation that will inform dose selection for following pediatric clinical trials.

By Jinying Zhu, Sufeng Zhou, Lu Wang, Yuqing Zhao, Jie Wang, Tangping Zhao, Tongtong Li, and Feng Shao