Regulatory agencies worldwide expect that clinical pharmacokinetic drug–drug interactions (DDIs) between an investigational new drug and other drugs should be conducted during drug development as part of an adequate assessment of the drug’s safety and efficacy. However, it is neither time nor cost efficient to test all possible DDI scenarios clinically. Phenytoin is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as a strong clinical index inducer of CYP3A4, and a moderate sensitive substrate of CYP2C9. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) platform model was developed using GastroPlus® to assess DDIs with phenytoin acting as the victim (CYP2C9, CYP2C19) or perpetrator (CYP3A4). Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from 15 different studies in healthy subjects. The PBPK model of phenytoin explains the contribution of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to the formation of 5-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin. Furthermore, it accurately recapitulated phenytoin exposure after single and multiple intravenous and oral doses/formulations ranging from 248 to 900 mg, the dose-dependent nonlinearity and the magnitude of the effect of food on phenytoin pharmacokinetics. Once developed and verified, the model was used to characterize and predict phenytoin DDIs with fluconazole, omeprazole and itraconazole, i.e., simulated/observed DDI AUC ratio ranging from 0.89 to 1.25. This study supports the utility of the PBPK approach in informing drug development.
By Leyanis Rodriguez-Vera, Xuefen Yin, Mohammed Almoslem, Karolin Romahn, Brian Cicali, Viera Lukacova, Rodrigo Cristofoletti, and Stephan Schmidt