Cumulative Fraction of Response for Once- and Twice-Daily Delamanid in Patients with Pulmonary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) analyses were conducted to determine the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) for 100 mg twice-daily (BID) and 200 mg once-daily (QD) delamanid in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), using a pharmacodynamic target (PDT) that achieves 80% of maximum efficacy. First, in the mouse model of chronic TB, the PK/PD index for delamanid efficacy was determined to be area under the drug concentration-time curve over 24 h divided by MIC (AUC0-24/MIC), with a PDT of 252. Second, in the hollow-fiber system model of tuberculosis, plasma-equivalent PDTs were identified as an AUC0-24/MIC of 195 in log-phase bacteria and 201 in pH 5.8 cultures. Third, delamanid plasma AUC0-24/MIC and sputum bacterial decline data from two early bactericidal activity trials identified a clinical PDT of AUC0-24/MIC of 171. Finally, the CFRs for the currently approved 100-mg BID dose were determined to be above 95% in two MDR-TB clinical trials. The CFR for the 200-mg QD dose, evaluated in a trial in which delamanid was administered as 100 mg BID for 8 weeks plus 200 mg QD for 18 weeks, was 89.3% based on the mouse PDT and >90% on the other PDTs. QTcF (QTc interval corrected for heart rate by Fridericia’s formula) prolongation was approximately 50% lower for the 200 mg QD dose than the 100 mg BID dose. In conclusion, while CFRs of 100 mg BID and 200 mg QD delamanid were close to or above 90% in patients with MDR-TB, more-convenient once-daily dosing of delamanid is feasible and likely to have less effect on QTcF prolongation.
By Suresh Mallikaarjun, Moti L Chapagain, Tomohiro Sasaki, Norimitsu Hariguchi, Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Alexander Berg, Kuniko Hirota, Yusuke Inoue, Makoto Matsumoto, Jeffrey Hafkin, Lawrence Geiter, Xiaofeng Wang, Tawanda Gumbo, Yongge Liu