Chemicals have multiple effects in biological systems. Because their on-target effects dominate the output, their off-target effects are often overlooked and can sometimes cause dangerous adverse events. Recently, we developed a novel decomposition profile data analysis method, orthogonal linear separation analysis (OLSA), to analyse multiple effects. In this study, we tested whether OLSA identified the ability of drugs to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a previously unrecognized factor. After analysing the transcriptome profiles of MCF7 cells treated with different chemicals, we focused on a vector characterized by well-known ER stress inducers, such as ciclosporin A. We selected five drugs predicted to be unrecognized ER stress inducers, based on their inducing ability scores derived from OLSA. These drugs actually induced X-box binding protein 1 splicing, an indicator of ER stress, in MCF7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Two structurally different representatives of the five test compounds exhibited similar results in HepG2 and HuH7 cells, but not in PXB primary hepatocytes derived from human-liver chimeric mice. These results indicate that our decomposition strategy using OLSA uncovered the ER stress-inducing ability of drugs as an unrecognized effect, the manifestation of which depended on the background of the cells.