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Aug 7, 2018

Design, Synthesis and Pharmacology of Aortic-Selective Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol O-Acyltransferase (ACAT/SOAT) Inhibitors

Abstract

We describe our molecular design of aortic-selective acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT, also abbreviated as SOAT) inhibitors, their structure-activity relationships (SARs) and their pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacological profiles. The connection of two weak ligands-N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)acetamide (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50 ] = 8.6 μM) and 2-(methylthio) benzo [d] oxazole (IC50 = 31 μM)-via a linker comprising a 6 methylene group chains yielded a highly potent molecule, 9-(benzo [d] oxazol-2-ylthio) -N- (2,6-diisopropylphenyl)nonanamide (3h) that exhibited high potency (IC50 = 0.004 μM) toward aortic ACAT. This head-to-tail design made it possible to markedly enhance the activity to 2150- to 7750-fold and to discriminate the isoform-selectivity based on the double-induced fit mechanism. At doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, 3h significantly decreased the lipid-accumulation areas in the aortic arch to 74 and 69%, respectively without reducing the plasma total cholesterol level in high fat- and cholesterol-fed F1B hamsters. Here, we demonstrate the antiatherosclerotic effect of 3hin vivo via its direct action on aortic ACAT and its powerful modulator of cholesterol level. This molecule is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of diseases involving ACAT-1 overexpression.

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