Design, Synthesis and Pharmacological evaluation of N-[4-(4-(alkyl/aryl/heteroaryl) -piperazin-1-yl) -phenyl] -carbamic acid ethyl ester derivatives as novel anticonvulsant agents
A series of alkyl/aryl/heteroaryl piperazine derivatives (37–54) were designed and synthesized as potential anticonvulsant agents. The target compounds are endowed with satisfactory physicochemical as well as pharmacokinetic properties. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity in maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (sc-PTZ) seizure tests. Further, neurotoxicity evaluation was carried out using rotarod method. Structure activity relationship studies showed that compounds possessing aromatic group at the piperazine ring displayed potent anticonvulsant activity. Majority of the compounds showed anti-MES activity whereas compounds 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 50, 52, and 53 exhibited anticonvulsant activity in both seizure tests. All the compounds except 42, 46, 47, and 50 did not show neurotoxicity. The most active derivative, 45 demonstrated potent anticonvulsant activity in MES test at the dose of 30 mg/kg (0.5 h) and 100 mg/kg (4 h) and also delivered excellent protection in sc-PTZ test (100 mg/kg) at both time intervals. Therefore, compound 45 was further assessed in PTZ-kindling model of epilepsy which is widely used model for studying epileptogenesis. This compound was effective in delaying onset of PTZ-evoked seizures at the dose of 5 mg/kg in kindled animals and significantly reduced oxidative stress better than standard drug phenobarbital (PB). In result, compound 45 emerged as a most potent and safer anticonvulsant lead molecule.