Drug–drug interaction prediction of ziritaxestat using a physiologically based enzyme and transporter pharmacokinetic network interaction model

Publication: Clinical and Translational Science
Division: Simulations Plus


Ziritaxestat, an autotaxin inhibitor, was under development for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

It is a substrate of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein and a weak inhibitor of the CYP3A4 and OATP1B1 pathways.

We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) network interaction model for ziritaxestat that incorporated its metabolic and transporter pathways, enabling prediction of its potential as a victim or perpetrator of drug–drug interactions (DDIs). Concurrently, we evaluated CYP3A4 autoinhibition, including time-dependent inhibition (TDI). In vitro information and clinical data from healthy volunteer studies were used for model building and validation.

DDIs with rifampin, itraconazole, voriconazole, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin were predicted, followed by validation against a test dataset. DDIs of ziritaxestat as a victim or perpetrator were simulated using the final model. Predicted-to-observed DDI ratios for Cmax and AUC were within a 2-fold ratio for both the metabolic and transporter-mediated simulated DDIs. The predicted impact of autoinhibition/autoinduction or TDI of CYP3A4 was a 12% decrease in exposure. Model-based predictions for ziritaxestat as a victim of DDIs with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor (fluconazole) suggested a 2.6-fold increase in the AUC of ziritaxestat, while multiple doses of a strong inhibitor (voriconazole) would increase the AUC by 15-fold. Efavirenz would yield a 3-fold decrease in the AUC of ziritaxestat. As a perpetrator, ziritaxestat was predicted to increase the AUC of the CYP3A4 index substrate midazolam by 2.7-fold. An overarching PBPK model was developed that could predict DDI liability of ziritaxestat for both CYP3A4 and the transporter pathways.

By Jeremy Perrier, Virginie Gualano, Eric Helmer, Florence Namour, Viera Lukacova, Amit Taneja