Effect of Food and a Proton-Pump Inhibitor on the Absorption of Encorafenib: An In Vivo–In Vitro–In Silico Approach

Publication: J Biomol Struct Dyn
Software: GastroPlus®


Encorafenib is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with BRAF mutant melanoma and BRAF mutant metastatic colorectal cancer. To understand the effect of food and coadministration with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), in vitroin vivo, and in silico data were generated to optimize the clinical dose, evaluate safety, and better understand the oral absorption process under these conditions. Study 1 evaluated the effect of food on the plasma pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability after a single oral dose of encorafenib 100 mg. Study 2 evaluated the same end points with coadministration of encorafenib and rabeprazole (PPI perpetrator). The in vitro gastrointestinal TIM-1 model was used to investigate the release of encorafenib and the amount available for absorption under different testing conditions (fasted, fed, and with the use of a PPI). The fasted, fed, and PPI states were predicted for the encorafenib commercial capsule in GastroPlus 9.8. In study 1, both AUCinf and AUClast decreased by 4% with the administration of a high-fat meal. The Cmax was 36% lower than with fasted conditions. All 3 exposure parameters in study 2 (AUCinf, AUClast, and Cmax) had mean changes of <10% when encorafenib was coadministered with a PPI. Using the in vitro gastrointestinal simulator TIM-1, the model demonstrated a similar release of drug, as the bioaccessible fraction, in the 3 conditions was equal (≥80%), predicting no PPI or food effect for this drug formulation. The modeling in GastroPlus 9.8 demonstrated complete absorption of encorafenib when formulated as an amorphous solid dispersion. To obtain these results, it was crucial to integrate the amorphous solubility of the drug that shows a 20-fold higher solubility at pH 6.8 compared with crystalline solubility. The increased amorphous solubility is likely the reason no PPI effect was observed compared with fasted state conditions. The prolongation in gastric emptying in the fed state resulted in delayed plasma Tmax for encorafenib. No dose adjustment is necessary when encorafenib is administered in the fed state or when coadministered with a PPI. Both the TIM-1 and physiologically based pharmacokinetic model results were consistent with the observed clinical data, suggesting that these will be valuable tools for future work.

By Joseph Piscitelli, Bart Hens, Irena Tomaszewska, Lance Wollenberg, Kevin Litwiler, Mark McAllister, and Micaela Reddy