Effect of the pulmonary deposition and in vitro permeability on the prediction of plasma levels of inhaled budesonide formulation

Publication: Int J Pharm
Software: GastroPlus®


The growing interest in the inhalable pharmaceutical products requires advanced approaches to safe and fast product development, such as in silico tools that can be used for estimating the bioavailability and toxicity of developed formulation. GastroPlus™ is one of the few available software packages for in silico simulation of PBPK profile of inhalable products. It contains a complementary module for calculating the lung deposition, the permeability and the systemic absorption of inhalable products. Experimental values of lung deposition and permeability can also be used. This study aims to assess the efficiency of simulation by applying experimental permeability and deposition values, using budesonide as a model substance. The lung deposition values were obtained from the literature, the lung permeability data were experimentally determined by culturing Calu-3 cells under air-liquid interface and submersed conditions to morphologically resemble bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells, respectively. A two-compartment PK model was created for i.v. administration and used as a background for the in silico simulation of the plasma profile of budesonide after inhalation. The predicted plasma profile was compared with the in vivo data from the literature and the effects of experimental lung deposition and permeability on prediction were assessed. The developed model was significantly improved by using realistic lung deposition data combined with experimental data for peripheral permeability.