Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative condition previously known to affect the older population, is also now seen in younger individuals. AD is often associated with cognitive decline and neuroinflammation elevation primarily due to amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation. Multiple pathological complications in AD call for therapies with a wide range of neuroprotection. Our study aims to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (NAT) in ameliorating the cognitive decline and neuroinflammation induced by Aβ 1-42 oligomers and to determine the therapeutic concentration of NAT in the brain. We administered Aβ 1-42 oligomers in rats via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection to induce AD-like conditions. The NAT-treated animals lowered the cognitive decline in the Morris water maze characterized by shorter escape latency and increased path efficiency and platform entries. Interestingly, the hippocampus and frontal cortex showed downregulation of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and substance P levels. NAT treatment also reduced acetylcholinesterase activity and total and phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B and Tau levels. Lastly, we observed upregulation of cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) signaling. Surprisingly, our HPLC method was not sensitive enough to detect the therapeutic levels of NAT in the brain, possibly due to NAT concentrations being below the lowest limit of quantification of our validated method. To summarize, the administration of NAT significantly lowered cognitive decline, neuroinflammatory pathways, and Tau protein and triggered the upregulation of CREB1 signaling, suggesting its neuroprotective role in AD-like conditions.
By Sairaj Satarker, Prasada Chowdari Gurram, Ajmal Nassar, Suman Manandhar, RJA Vibhavari, Dani Lakshman Yarlagadda, Jayesh Mudgal, Shaila Lewis, Devinder Arora & Madhavan Nampoothiri