This article reviews the impacts on the in vivo prediction of oral bioavailability (BA) and bioequivalence (BE) based on Biopharmaceutical classification systems (BCS) by the food-drug interaction (food effect) and the gastrointestinal (GI) environmental change. Various in vitro and in silico predictive methodologies have been used to expect the BA and BE of the test oral formulation. Food intake changes the GI physiology and environment, which affect oral drug absorption and its BE evaluation. Even though the pHs and bile acids in the GI tract would have significant influence on drug dissolution and, hence, oral drug absorption, those impacts largely depend on the physicochemical properties of oral medicine, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). BCS class I and III drugs are high soluble drugs in the physiological pH range, food-drug interaction may not affect their BA. On the other hand, BCS class II and IV drugs have pH-dependent solubility, and the more bile acid secretion and the pH changes by food intake might affect their BA. In this report, the GI physiological changes between the fasted and fed states are described and the prediction on the oral drug absorption by food-drug interaction have been introduced.
By Yasuhiro Tsume