Gastroplus and HSPiP Oriented Predictive Parameters as the Basis of Valproic Acid Loaded Mucoadhesive Cationic Nanoemulsion Gel for Improved Nose-To-Brain Delivery to Control Convulsion in Human

Software: GastroPlus®


Oral and parenteral delivery of first-line anticonvulsant Valproic cid (VA) are associated with serious adverse effects, high hepatic metabolism, high clearance, and low bioavailability in brain. GastroPlus program was used to predict in vivo performance of immediate (IR) and sustained release (SR) products in human. HSPiP software predicted excipients with maximum possible miscibility of the drug. Based on GastroPlus and HSPiP program, various excipients were screened for experimental solubility study and prepared cationic nanoemulsions and respective gels for nasal to brain delivery. These were characterised for size, size distribution, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, pH, % transmittance, drug content, and viscosity. In vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation profile (goat nasal mucosa), and penetration studies were conducted. Result showed that in-vivo oral drug dissolution and absorption were predicted as 98.6 mg and 18.8 mg, respectively from both tablets (IR and SR) at 8 h using GastroPlus. The drug access to the portal vein was relatively predicted high in IR (115 mg) as compared to SR (82.6 mg). Plasma drug concentration-time profile predicted was in good agreement with published reports. The program predicted duodenum and jejunum as the prime site of drug absorption and no effect of nanonization on Tmax for sustained release formulation. Hansen parameters suggested suitable selection of excipients. The program recommended for nasal to brain delivery of the drug using cationic mucoadhesive product. The optimized stable CVE6 was associated with optimal size (113 nm), low PDI (0.26), high zeta potential (+34.7 mV), high transmittance (97.8%), and high strength (0.7 %w/w). In vitro release and ex vivo permeation of CVE6 were found to be substantially high as compared to anionic AVE6 and respective gels. Penetration study executed high fluorescence intensity with CVE6 and CVE6-gel as compared to suspension and ANE6 which may be attributed to electrostatic interaction between mucosal membrane and nanoglobules. Thus, cationic nanoemulsion and respective mucoadhesive gel are promising strategy for delivery of VA to brain through intransal administration for the treatment of seizure and convulsion.
By Afzal Hussain, Mohammad A. Altamimi, Mohd Aamir Mirza, Mohhammad Ramzan, Tahir Khuroo