Improved Oral Pharmacokinetics of Pentoxifylline with Palm Oil and Capmul® MCM Containing Self-Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System
Pentoxifylline (PTX), an anti-hemorrhage drug used in the treatment of intermittent claudication, is extensively metabolized by the liver resulting in a reduction of the therapeutic levels within a short duration of time. Self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) is well reported to enhance the bio-absorption of drugs by forming nano-sized globules upon contact with the biological fluids after oral administration. The present study aimed to formulate, characterize, and improve the oral bioavailability of PTX using SNEDDS. The formulated SNEDDS consisted of palm oil, Capmul® MCM, and Tween® 80 as oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively. The mixture design module under the umbrella of the design of experiments was used for the optimization of SNEDDS. The dynamic light-scattering technique was used to confirm the formation of nanoemulsion based on the globule size, in addition to the turbidity measurements. In vivo bioavailability studies were carried out on male Wistar rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters upon oral administration were calculated using the GastroPlus software. The optimized SNEDDS had a mean globule size of 165 nm with minimal turbidity in an aqueous medium. Bioavailability of PTX increased 1.5-folds (AUC = 1013.30 ng h/mL) as SNEDDS than the pure drug with an AUC of 673.10 ng h/mL. In conclusion, SNEDDS was seen to enhance the bioavailability of PTX and can be explored to effectively control the incidents of intermittent claudication.