In silico bioavailability for BCS class II efavirenz tablets using biorelevant dissolution media for IVIVR and simulation of formulation changes

Publication: Drug Dev Ind Pharm


This work aims to evaluate the ability of biorelevant dissolution media to simulate the bioavailability of efavirenz tablets, establish an in vitroin vivo relationship (IVIVR) based on in vivo data using GastroPlus® and simulate formulation changes using DDDPlus™


Solubility and drug release profiles were conducted in SLS 0.5% and biorelevant media, such as FaSSIF, FeSSIF, FaSSIF-V2, and FeSSIF-V2. The efavirenz physicochemical properties were used to simulate the plasma concentration profile and compare the simulated pharmacokinetic parameters in fasted and fed states. An IVIVR was developed using Loo-Riegelman as the deconvolution method to estimate drug bioavailability. DDDPlus™ was used to perform virtual trials of formulations to evaluate whether formulations changes and the efavirenz particle size could influence the bioavailability.


The drug dissolution displayed higher levels in the biorelevant media that simulated gut-fed state (FeSSIF and FeSSIF-V2). The absorption model successfully predicted the efavirenz pharmacokinetics, and FeSSIF-V2 was chosen as the predictive dissolution media, while an IVIVR was established using the Loo-Riegelman deconvolution method.


The present work provides valuable information about efavirenz solubility and kinetics in the gastrointestinal tract, allowing an IVIVR to support future formulation changes. This understanding is essential for rational science-driven formulation development. At least, this study also showed the validity and applicability of in vitro and in silico tools in the regulatory scenario helping on drug development.

By Thalita Martins da Silva, Thiago da Silva Honorio, Marcelo Henrique da Cunha Chaves, Marcelo Dutra Duque, Lucio Mendes Cabral, Beatriz Ferreira de Carvalho Patricio, Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha