In vitro investigation of metabolic fate of α-mangostin and gartanin via skin permeation by LC-MS/MS and in silico evaluation of the metabolites by ADMET predictor™

Publication: BMC Compl Med Therap
Software: ADMET Predictor®



Mangosteen, Garciniam angostana L., is a juicy fruit commonly found in Thailand. The rinds of Garciniam angostana L.have been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of trauma, diarrhea and skin infection. It is also used in dermatological product such as in cosmetics. The mangosteen pericarp can be used to extract valuable bioactive xanthone compounds such as α-mangostin and gartanin. This study is aimed to predict the metabolism of α-mangostin and gartanin using in silico and in vitro skin permeation strategies.


Based on their 2D molecular structures, metabolites of those compounds were predicted in silico using ADMET Predictor™. The Km and Vmax, for 5 important recombinant CYP isozymes 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 were predicted. Moreover, the in vitro investigation of metabolites produced during skin permeation using human epidermal keratinocyte cells, neonatal (HEKn cells) was performed by LC-MS/MS.


It was found that the results derived from in silico were in excellent alignment with those obtained from in vitro studies for both compounds. The prediction referred that gartanin and α-mangostin were the substrate of CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19 and 3A. In the investigation of α-mangostin metabolites by LC-MS/MS system, the MW of the parent compound was increased from 411.200 to 459.185 Da. Therefore, α-mangostin might be metabolized via tri-oxidation process. The increased molecular weight of parent compound (397.200 to 477.157 Da) illustrated that gartanin might be conjugated to sulfated derivatives.


In all the studies, α-mangostin and gartanin were predicted to be.

metabolized via phase I and phase II metabolism (sulfation), respectively.

By P. Rukthong, N. Sereesongsang, T. Kulsirirat, N. Boonnak & K. Sathirakul