Integrating in vitro, modeling, and in vivo approaches to investigate warfarin bioequivalence

Publication: CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol
Software: GastroPlus®


We demonstrate the use of modeling and simulation to investigate bioequivalence (BE) concerns raised about generic warfarin products. To test the hypothesis that the loss of isopropyl alcohol and slow dissolution in acidic pH has significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin sodium tablets, we conducted physiologically based pharmacokinetic absorption modeling and simulation using formulation factors or in vitro dissolution profiles as input parameters. Sensitivity analyses indicated that warfarin pharmacokinetics was not sensitive to solubility, particle size, density, or dissolution rate in pH 4.5, but was affected by dissolution rate in pH 6.8 and potency. Virtual BE studies suggested that stressed warfarin sodium tablets with slow dissolution rate in pH 4.5 but having similar dissolution rate in pH 6.8 would be bioequivalent to the unstressed warfarin sodium tablets. A four-way, crossover, single-dose BE study in healthy subjects was conducted to test the same hypothesis and confirmed the simulation conclusion