Justification of Biowaiver and Dissolution Rate Specifications for Piroxicam Immediate Release Products Based on Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling: An In-Depth Analysis
A quantitative prediction of human pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles has become an increasing demand for the reduction of the clinical failure of drug formulations. The existing in vitro and in vivo correlation (IVIVC) methodology could achieve this goal, but the development of IVIVC for immediate release (IR) products is challenging. Herein, we report that for certain weakly acidic biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class II molecules (piroxicam, PIRO), physiologically based PK (PBPK) modeling could be used as a tool to quantitatively predict PK in beagle dogs and to conduct an interspecies extrapolation to humans. First, robust PBPK models were constructed in beagle dogs under both fasted and fed states. Then, a Z-factor model was integrated to assess the effect of in vitro dissolution rates on the in vivo PK performance, and the results illustrated that PIRO IR products had a much wider dissolution space than was anticipated by bioequivalence. In addition, the parameter sensitivity analysis (PSA) assay showed that good oral absorption was achieved only when the particle size was below 150 μm. Finally, the combined PBPK models were extrapolated to humans to specify a quality control strategy; this extrapolation constituted an extension of a biowaiver for PIRO IR formulations. The results showed that the developed method can be utilized to quantitatively predict human PK, which would be meaningful for future scale-up or postapproval changes.