Metabolism and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of flumioxazin in pregnant animals

Publication: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
Software: ADMET Predictor®


A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the concentration of flumioxazin, in the blood and fetus of pregnant humans during a theoretical accidental intake (1000mg/kg). The data on flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats (30mg/kg po) was used to develop the PBPK model in pregnant rats using physiological parameters and chemical specific parameters. The rat PBPK model developed was extrapolated to a human model. Liver microsomes of female rats and a mixed gender of humans were used for the in vitro metabolism study. To determine the % of flumioxazin absorbed after administration at a dose of 1000mg/kg assuming maximum accidental intake, the biliary excretion study of [phenyl-U-(14)C]flumioxazin was conducted in bile duct-cannulated female rats (Crl:CD (SD)) to collect and analyze the bile, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tract, and residual carcass. The % of flumioxazin absorbed at a dose of 1000mg/kg in rats was low (12.3%) by summing up (14)C of the urine, bile, and residual carcass. The pregnant human model that was developed demonstrated that the maximum flumioxazin concentration in the blood and fetus of a pregnant human at a dose of 1000mg/kg po was 0.86μg/mL and 0.68μg/mL, respectively, which is much lower than Km (202.4μg/mL). Because the metabolism was not saturated and the absorption rate was low at a dose of 1000mg/kg, the calculated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was thought to be relatively low, considering the flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats at a dose of 30mg/kg. For the safety assessment of flumioxazin, these results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments.