Mitigation of Adverse Clinical Events of a Narrow Target Therapeutic Index Compound through Modified Release Formulation Design: An In Vitro, In Vivo, In Silico, and Clinical Pharmacokinetic Analysis

Publication: Mol Pharm
Software: GastroPlus®


BMS-914392 is a tricyclic pyranoquinoline BCS class 2 weak base that demonstrates high solubility in low pH environments. Initial clinical studies indicated that rapid release of high dose BMS-914392 led to transient adverseevents associated with peak plasma concentrations. A modified release (MR) formulation strategy was proposed to suppress the peak blood concentration and maintain total exposure to overcome the adverse effects. Three modifiedrelease prototype formulations were developed and tested via a USP 3 dissolution method to verify that each formulation can effectively slow the release of BMS-914392. A pharmacokinetic (PK) absorption model was employed to guide the formulation development and selection. Simulations showed good agreement with plasma levels measured after oral dosing in dogs. Identification of key formulation factors to achieve release rates suitable for blunting peak blood levels without diminishing exposure were achieved through combined preclinical data and use of GastroPlus simulations. PK absorption model refinements based on phase 1 data, dog pharmacokinetic results, and in vitro data provided reliable predictions of human absorption profiles and variability in patients. All three prototype formulations demonstrated lower maximum plasma concentrations of BMS-914392 and maintained satisfactory relative bioavailability. Both the PK absorption model and subsequent clinical data indicated that an acidified hydrophilic matrix MR formulation had the greatest potential to reduce the incidence of adverse events and showed the best exposure profile in fasted state healthy subjects with and without famotidine coadministration. The risk based development process achieved successful screening and selection of a suitable modified release formulation to enable clinical efficacy trials.