Prolactin release is a side effect of antipsychotic therapy with dopamine antagonists, observed in rats as well as humans. We examined whether two semimechanistic models could describe prolactin response in rats and subsequently be translated to predict pituitary dopamine D2 receptor occupancy and plasma prolactin concentrations in humans following administration of paliperidone or remoxipride. Data on male Wistar rats receiving single or multiple doses of risperidone, paliperidone, or remoxipride was described by two semimechanistic models, the precursor pool model and the agonist-antagonist interaction model. Using interspecies scaling approaches, human D2 receptor occupancy and plasma prolactin concentrations were predicted for a range of clinical paliperidone and remoxipride doses. The predictions were compared with corresponding observations described in literature as well as with predictions from published models developed on human data. The pool model could predict D2 receptor occupancy and prolactin response in humans following single doses of paliperidone and remoxipride. Tolerance of prolactin release was predicted following multiple doses. The interaction model underpredicted both D2 receptor occupancy and prolactin response. Prolactin elevation may be deployed as a suitable biomarker for interspecies translation and can inform the clinical safe and effective dose range of antipsychotic drugs. While the pool model was more predictive than the interaction model, it overpredicted tolerance on multiple dosing. Shortcomings of the translations reflect the need for better mechanistic models.
By Amit Taneja, An Vermeulen, Dymphy R H Huntjens, Meindert Danhof, Elizabeth C M De LangeAgonist-antagonist interaction model; dopamine D2 antagonists; precursor pool model; prolactin; receptor occupancy; translational modeling, Johannes H Proost