Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent parasitic infectious disease after malaria, which affects millions of people worldwide and causes health and socioeconomic problems. The snail Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate host for the helminth, which is the causative agent of schistosomiasis: Schistosoma mansoni. One crucial strategy for controlling the disease is the eradication of the snail host. Niclosamide is the unique molluskicide applied in large-scale control programs, but its selectivity to other species is not adequate. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new molluskicides that are inexpensive, safe, and selective. Quinones are ubiquitous, playing important biological roles in fungi, plants, and others. Many synthetic molecules with relevant biological activities that contain the quinone nucleus in their structure are on the market in the therapy of cancer, malaria, or toxoplasmosis, for example. Derivatives of quinones are tools in the development of new molluskicides for Abbott laboratories. In the present work, 3-aryl-2‑hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones (ANs) were tested for molluskicide activity against Biomphalaria glabrata. The lethal concentration was determined for 48 h of continuous exposure. The naphthoquinones were found to have molluskicide properties. AN-15 was recorded as the highest mortality. Additionally, this analog exhibited in silico reduced ambient toxicity when compared to niclosamide. The findings of this study demonstrate that 3-aryl-2‑hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones are effective for the management of Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions.
By Daniela de Luna Martins, Nayane Abreudo Amaral e Silva, Vitor F. Ferreira Leonardo da Silva Rangel, José Augusto Albuquerque dos Santos & Robson Xavier Faria