Parameters for pyrethroid insecticide QSAR and PBPK/PD models for human risk assessment
In this review we have examined the status of parameters required by pyrethroid QSAR-PBPK/PD models for assessing health risks. In lieu of the chemical,biological, biochemical, and toxicological information developed on the pyrethroids since 1968, the finding of suitable parameters for QSAR and PBPK/PD model development was a monumental task. The most useful information obtained came from rat toxicokinetic studies (i.e., absorption, distribution, and excretion), metabolism studies with 14C-cyclopropane- and alcohol-labeled pyrethroids, the use of known chiral isomers in the metabolism studies and their relation to commercial products. In this review we identify the individual chiralisomers that have been used in published studies and the chiral HPLC columns available for separating them. Chiral HPLC columns are necessary for isomer identification and for developing kinetic values (Vm,, and Kin) for pyrethroid hydroxylation. Early investigators synthesized analytical standards for key pyrethroid metabolites, and these were used to confirm the identity of urinary etabolites, by using TLC. These analytical standards no longer exist, and muste resynthesized if further studies on the kinetics of the metabolism of pyrethroids are to be undertaken.In an attempt to circumvent the availability of analytical standards, several CYP450 studies were carried out using the substrate depletion method. This approach does not provide information on the products formed downstream, and may be of limited use in developing human environmental exposure PBPK/PD models that require extensive urinary metabolite data. Hydrolytic standards (i.e., alcohols and acids) were available to investigators who studied the carboxylesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of several pyrethroid insecticides. The data generated in these studies are suitable for use in developing human exposure PBPK/PD models.Tissue:blood partition coefficients were developed for the parent pyrethroids and their metabolites, by using a published mechanistic model introduced by Poulin and Thiele (2002a; b) and log DpH 7.4 values. The estimated coefficients, especially those of adipose tissue, were too high and had to be corrected by using a procedure in which the proportion of parent or metabolite residues that are unbound to plasma albumin is considered, as described in the GastroPlus model (Simulations Plus, Inc.,Lancaster, CA). The literature suggested that Km values be adjusted by multiplying Km by the substrate (decimal amount) that is unbound to microsomal or CYPprotein. Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) used flow- and diffusion-limited compartments in their deltamethrin model. The addition of permeability areas (PA) having diffusion limits, such as the fat and slowly perfused compartments, enabled the investigators to bring model predictions in line with in vivo data.There appears to be large differences in the manner and rate of absorption of the pyrethroids from the gastrointestinal tract, implying that GI advanced compartmental transit models (ACAT) need to be included in PBPK models. This is especially true of the absorption of an oral dose of tefluthrin in male rats, in which 3.0-6.9%,41.3-46.3%, and 5.2-15.5% of the dose is eliminated in urine, feces, and bile,respectively (0-48 h after administration). Several percutaneous studies with the pyrethroids strongly support the belief that these insecticides are not readily absorbed, but remain on the surface of the skin until they are washed off. In one articular study (Sidon et al. 1988) the high levels of permethrin absorption through the forehead skin (24-28%) of the monkey was reported over a 7- to 14-days period.Wester et al. (1994) reported an absorption of 1.9% of pyrethrin that had been applied to the forearm of human volunteers over a 7-days period.SAR models capable of predicting the binding of the pyrethroids to plasma and hepatic proteins were developed by Yamazaki and Kanaoka (2004), Saiakhov et al. (2000), Colmenarejo et al. (2001), and Colmenarejo (2003). QikProp(Schrodinger, LLC) was used to obtain Fu values for calculating partition coefficients and for calculating permeation constants (Caco-2, MDCK, and logBBB). ADMET Predictor (Simulations Plus Inc.) provided Vm~,x and Km values for the hydroxylation of drugs/pyrethroids by human liver recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes making the values available for possible use in PBPK/PD models.The Caco-2 permeability constants and CYP3A4 Vmax and Km values are needed in PBPK/PD models with GI ACAT sub models. Modeling work by Chang et al.(2009) produced rate constants (kcat) for the hydrolysis of pyrethroids by rat serumcarboxylesterases. The skin permeation model of Potts and Guy (1992) was used topredict K, values for the dermal absorption of the 15 pyrethroids.The electrophysiological studies by Narahashi (1971) and others (Breckenridgeet al. 2009; Shafer et al. 2005; Soderlund et al. 2002; Wolansky and Harrill 2008)demonstrated that the mode of action of pyrethroids on nerves is to interfere with the changes in sodium and potassium ion currents. The pyrethroids, being highly lipid soluble, are bound or distributed in lipid bilayers of the nerve cell membrane and exert their action on sodium channel proteins. The rising phase of the action potential is caused by sodium influx (sodium activation), while the falling phase is caused by sodium activation being turned off, and an increase in potassium efflux(potassium activation). The action of allethrin and other pyrethroids is caused by an inhibition or block of the normal currents. An equation by Tatebayashi and Narahashi (1994) that describes the action of pyrethroids on sodium channels was found in the literature. This equation, or some variation of it, may be suitable for use in the PD portion of pyrethroid PBPK models.