Uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in the small intestines, but prediction of first-pass extraction from the related metabolism is not well studied. This work assesses physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling as a tool for predicting intestinal metabolism due to UGTs in the human gastrointestinal tract. Available data for intestinal UGT expression levels and in vitro approaches that can be used to predict intestinal metabolism of UGT substrates are reviewed. Human PBPK models for UGT substrates with varying extents of UGT-mediated intestinal metabolism (lorazepam, oxazepam, naloxone, zidovudine, cabotegravir, raltegravir, and dolutegravir) have demonstrated utility for predicting the extent of intestinal metabolism. Drug–drug interactions (DDIs) of UGT1A1 substrates dolutegravir and raltegravir with UGT1A1 inhibitor atazanavir have been simulated, and the role of intestinal metabolism in these clinical DDIs examined. Utility of an in silico tool for predicting substrate specificity for UGTs is discussed. Improved in vitro tools to study metabolism for UGT compounds, such as coculture models for low clearance compounds and better understanding of optimal conditions for in vitro studies, may provide an opportunity for improved in vitro–in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and prospective predictions. PBPK modeling shows promise as a useful tool for predicting intestinal metabolism for UGT substrates.
By Micaela B. Reddy, Michael B. Bolger, Grace Fraczkiewicz, Laurence Del Frari, Laibin Luo, Viera Lukacova, Amitava Mitra, Joyce S. Macwan, Jim M. Mullin, Neil Parrott and Aki T. Heikkinen