The frequency of resistance to beta-lactams among nosocomial isolates has been increasing due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enteric bacilli. Although clinical outcome data are desirable, assessment of clinical efficacy has been limited due to the lack of a statistically meaningful number of well-documented cases. Since time above the MIC (T>MIC) is the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) measure that best correlates with in vivo activity of beta-lactams, a stochastic model was used to predict the probability of PK-PD target attainment ranging from 30 (P30) to 70% (P70) T>MIC, for standard dosing regimens of both piperacillin-tazobactam and cefepime against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL phenotypes. The P70/30 T>MIC for cefepime at 2 g every 12 h against E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 0.99/1.0 and 0.96/1.0 and for a regimen of 1 g every 12 h was 0.96/1.0 and 0.93/0.99, respectively. For piperacillin-tazobactam at 3.375 g every 4 h against E. coli and K. pneumoniae, the P70/30 T>MIC was 0.77/0.96 and 0.48/0.77 and for a regimen of 3.375 g every 6 h was 0.28/0.91 and 0.16/0.69, respectively. These data suggest that the probability of achieving T>MIC target attainment rates is generally higher with cefepime than with piperacillin-tazobactam for present-day ESBL-producing strains when one uses contemporary dosing regimens.
By, Ambrose PG, Bhavnani SM, Jones RN