Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling to predict drug–drug interactions for encorafenib. Part I. Model building, validation, and prospective predictions with enzyme inhibitors, inducers, and transporter inhibitors

Publication: Xenobiotica
Software: GastroPlus®


  1. Encorafenib, a potent BRAF kinase inhibitor undergoes significant metabolism by CYP3A4 (83%) and CYP2C19 (16%) and also a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Because of this, encorafenib possesses potential for enzyme-transporter related interactions. Clinically, its drug–drug interactions (DDIs) with CYP3A4 inhibitors (posaconazole, diltiazem) were reported and hence there is a necessity to study DDIs with multiple enzyme inhibitors, inducers, and P-gp inhibitors.

  2. USFDA recommended clinical CYP3A4, CYP2C19, P-gp inhibitors, CYP3A4 inducers were selected and prospective DDIs were simulated using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling (PBPK). Impact of dose (50 mg vs. 300 mg) and staggering of administrations (0–10 h) on the DDIs were predicted.

  3. PBPK models for encorafenib, perpetrators simulated PK parameters within twofold prediction error. Clinically reported DDIs with posaconazole and diltiazem were successfully predicted.

  4. CYP2C19 inhibitors did not result in significant DDI whereas strong CYP3A4 inhibitors resulted in DDI ratio up to 4.5. Combining CYP3A4, CYP2C19 inhibitors yielded DDI equivalent CYP3A4 alone. Strong CYP3A4 inducers yielded DDI ratio up to 0.3 and no impact of P-gp inhibitors on DDIs was observed. The DDIs were not impacted by dose and staggering of administration. Overall, this work indicated significance of PBPK modelling for evaluating clinical DDIs with enzymes, transporters and interplay.

By Sivacharan Kollipara,Tausif Ahmed &Sivadasu Praveen