PK/PD modeling of a clazosentan thorough QT study with hysteresis in concentration-QT and RR-QT

Publication: J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn


Clazosentan’s potential QT liability was investigated in a thorough QT study in which clazosentan was administered intravenously as a continuous infusion of 20 mg/h immediately followed by 60 mg/h. Clazosentan prolonged the placebo-corrected change-from-baseline QT interval corrected for RR with Fridericia’s formula (ΔΔQTcF) with the maximum QT effect occurring 4 h after the maximum drug concentration, apparently associated with vomiting. The delayed effect precluded the standard linear modeling approach. This analysis aimed at characterizing the concentration-QT relationship in consideration of RR-QT hysteresis, concentration-ΔΔQTcF hysteresis, and the influence of vomiting. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was applied to characterize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, i.e., ΔΔQTcF. Simulations were used to predict ΔΔQTcF for expected therapeutic dose used in Phase 3 clinical development. Correction for RR-QT hysteresis did not influence ΔΔQTcF to a relevant extent. Pharmacokinetics of clazosentan were best described by a linear two-compartment model. The delayed QT prolongation was characterized by an indirect-response model with loglinear drug effect. Vomiting had no statistically significant influence on QT prolongation despite apparent differences between subjects vomiting and not vomiting, probably since vomiting occurred mostly after the main QT prolongation. Following a simulated 3-h infusion of 15 mg/h of clazosentan, the upper bound of the predicted 90% CI for mean ΔΔQTcF was expected to exceed the 10-ms regulatory threshold of concern with maximum effect 3.5 h after end of infusion. TRN: NCT03657446, 05 Sep 2018.

By Andrea Henrich, Pierre-Eric Juif, Jasper Dingemanse, Andreas Krause