Background and objectives: GLPG1690 is an autotaxin inhibitor in development for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Several publications suggested a role of autotaxin in the control of disease-affected lung function and of lysophosphatidic acid in lung remodeling processes. The aim of the current article was to describe the exposure-response relationship of GLPG1690 and further develop a rational basis to support dose selection for clinical trials in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Methods: Two trials were conducted in healthy volunteers: in the first trial, GLPG1690 was administered as single doses from 20 mg up to 1500 mg, and subsequently in multiple daily doses of 300-1000 mg. In a second trial, the interaction of rifampin with 600 mg of GLPG1690 was evaluated. A third trial was conducted in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis administered 600 mg of GLPG1690 once daily for 12 weeks. The exposure-response (lysophosphatidic acid C18:2 reduction) relationship of GLPG1690 was first described using non-linear mixed-effects modeling and the model was subsequently deployed to simulate a lysophosphatidic acid C18:2 reduction as a biomarker of autotaxin inhibition in the dose range from 50 to 1000 mg once or twice daily.
Results: The population pharmacokinetics and lysophosphatidic acid C18:2 response of GLPG1690 were adequately described by a combined population pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. Dose, formulation, rifampin co-administration, health status (healthy volunteer vs. patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), and baseline lysophosphatidic acid C18:2 were identified as covariates in the model. The effect of dose on systemic clearance indicated that GLPG1690 followed a more than dose-proportional increase in exposure over the simulated dose range of 50-1000 mg once daily. Model-based simulations showed reductions in lysophosphatidic acid C18:2 of at least 80% with doses greater or equal to 200 mg once daily.
Conclusion: Based on these results, 200 and 600 mg once-daily doses were selected for future clinical trials in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.