Population pharmacokinetics of tirilazad: effects of weight, gender, concomitant phenytoin, and subarachnoid hemorrhage
Data collected during Phase I and II in the development of tirilazad were pooled and analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects models to assess covariates which might affect tirilazad pharmacokinetics.
Four single dose and five multiple dose studies in normal volunteers were combined with two multiple dose studies performed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to identify factors related to intersubject variability in clearance (CL) and central compartment volume (Vc). Data from 253 subjects, which consisted of 7,219 tirilazad concentrations, were analyzed. The effects of weight, gender, patient versus volunteer status, and phenytoin use were evaluated.
Relative to male volunteers not receiving concomitant phenytoin, significant effects on clearance included: a 46% increase in volunteers receiving phenytoin, and an 82% increase in clearance associated with SAH patients (all of whom received phenytoin). Significant effects on Vc were: a 26% increase for female volunteers not receiving phenytoin, a 12% decrease for volunteers receiving concomitant phenytoin, a 152% increase for male SAH patients, and a 270% increase for female SAH patients. Incorporating patient covariate effects substantially reduced the interindividual variability (from 27.9% to 24.7% for clearance and from 48.2% to 37.5% for Vc). Residual variability was estimated at 66% coefficient of variation (CV) in SAH patients and at 22-48% CV over the range of predicted concentrations in normal volunteers.
The most important factors affecting tirilazad pharmacokinetics are the administration of phenytoin (increased CL) and SAH (increased Vc and residual variability). The effect of gender on tirilazad pharmacokinetics was modest.
By, Fleishaker JC, Jill Fiedler-Kelly, Thaddeus H Grasela