Prediction of Human Pharmacokinetics Using Physiologically Based Modeling: A Retrospective Analysis of 26 Clinically Tested Drugs
The aim of this study was to evaluate different physiologically based modeling strategies for the prediction of human pharmacokinetics. Plasma profiles after intravenous and oral dosing were simulated for 26 clinically tested drugs. Two mechanism-based predictions of human tissue-to-plasma partitioning (Ptp) from physicochemical input (method Vd1) were evaluated for their ability to describe human volume of distribution at steady state (Vss). This method was compared with a strategy that combined predicted and experimentally determined in vivo rat Ptp data (method Vd2). Best Vsspredictions were obtained using method Vd2, providing that rat Ptp input was corrected for interspecies differences in plasma protein binding (84% within 2-fold). Vss predictions from physicochemical input alone were poor (32% within 2-fold). Total body clearance (CL) was predicted as the sum of scaled rat renal clearance and hepatic clearance projected from in vitro metabolism data. Best CL predictions were obtained by disregarding both blood and microsomal or hepatocyte binding (method CL2, 74% within 2-fold), whereas strong bias was seen using both blood and microsomal or hepatocyte binding (method CL1, 53% within 2-fold). The physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model, which combined methods Vd2 and CL2 yielded the most accurate predictions of in vivo terminal half-life (69% within 2-fold). The Gastroplus advanced compartmental absorption and transit model was used to construct an absorption-disposition model and provided accurate predictions of area under the plasma concentration-time profile, oral apparent volume of distribution, and maximum plasma concentration after oral dosing, with 74%, 70%, and 65% within 2-fold, respectively. This evaluation demonstrates that PBPK models can lead to reasonable predictions of human pharmacokinetics.