Predictions of tissue concentrations of myclobutanil, oxyfluorfen, and pronamide in rat and human after oral exposures via GastroPlusTM physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling

Publication: SAR QSAR Environ Res
Software: GastroPlus®


Heritage agrochemicals like myclobutanil, oxyfluorfen, and pronamide, are extensively used in agriculture, with well-established studies on their animal toxicity. Yet, human toxicity assessment relies on conventional human risk assessment approaches including the utilization of animal-based ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion) data. In recent years, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling approaches have played an increasing role in human risk assessment of many chemicals including agrochemicals. This study addresses the absence of PBPK-type data for myclobutanil, oxyfluorfen, and pronamide by generating in vitro data for key input PBPK parameters (Caco-2 permeability, rat plasma binding, rat blood to plasma ratio, and rat liver microsomal half-life), followed by generation of PBPK models for these three chemicals via the GastroPlusTM software. Incorporating these experimental input parameters into PBPK models, the prediction accuracy of plasma AUC (area under curve) was significantly improved. Validation against rat oral administration data demonstrated substantial enhancement. Steady-state plasma concentrations (Css) of pronamide aligned well with published data using measured PBPK parameters. Following validation, parent-based tissue concentrations for these agrochemicals were predicted in humans and rats after single or 30-day repeat exposure of 10 mg/kg/day. These predicted concentrations contribute valuable information for future human toxicity risk assessments of these agrochemicals.

By F. Zhang, T.C. Erskine,E.L. McClymont,L.M. Moore,M.J. LeBaron,D. McNett &S.S. Marty