A review of the current state of the art of physiologically-based tests for measuring human dermal in vitro bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are classed as Persistent Organic Pollutants, a large group of compounds that share similar characteristics. They are lipophilic, resistant to degradation in the environment and harmful to human and environmental health. Soil has been identified as the primary reservoir for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the United Kingdom. This study reviews the literature associated with, or is relevant to, the measurement and modelling of dermal absorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from soils. The literature illustrates the use of in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods from a wide variety of scientific disciplines including occupational and environmental exposure, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic research and associated mathematical modelling. The review identifies a number of practical shortcomings which must be addressed if dermal bioavailability tests are to be applied to laboratory analysis of contaminated soils for human health risk assessment.