Solidified SNEDDS for the oral delivery of rifampicin: Evaluation, proof of concept, in vivo kinetics, and in silico GastroPlusTM simulation

Publication: Int J Pharm


The present investigation was performed to develop a rifampicin (RIF)-loaded solidified self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) (solidified RIF-OF1) for in vitro and in vivo evaluations. Optimized formulations were tested for their powder flow characteristics, loading efficiency, and in vitro dissolution (at pH-1.2, 6.8 and 7.4). Compatibility studies were also performed. The formulations were also tested for hemocompatibility, intestinal permeation, histopathological effects, and in vivo pharmacokinetics. Additionally, an in silico simulation study using GastroPlus was performed. At different varied pH values, we observed immediate release (T85% within 15 min) based on the dissolution profile. This could be due to labrasol-assisted RIF solubilization. In vitro hemolysis study of the reconstituted RIF-OF1 revealed normal architecture of erythrocytes compared to the positive control (lysed and fragmented). Through in vivo permeation and biopsy studies, a rationale for facilitated intestinal permeation of RIF with components deemed physiological safe (normal anatomy of mucosal membrane evidenced from biopsy study) could be established. The in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) plus module of GastroPlusTM simulation showed a good IVIVC between in vitro release and in vivo absorption with a predicted systemic absorption of ∼96.5%. Solidified SNEDDS showed improved pharmacokinetic profiles compared to RIF suspension. Solid RIF-SNEDDS was demonstrated to be a suitable carrier for enhanced intestinal permeation and oral bioavailability. Hence, it may serve as a suitable alternative to conventional delivery systems for tuberculosis treatment.