Synthesis, Biological Activity and In Silico Pharmacokinetic Prediction of a New 2-Thioxo-Imidazoldidin-4-One of Primaquine
Keywords: 2-thioxo-imidazolidin-4-one, anti-infectives, antitrypanosomal activity, gastroplus, in silico PK Therapeutic area, PBPK modeling, physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, primaquineSoftware: ADMET Predictor®, GastroPlus®Publication: Pharmaceuticals
The discovery of novel antiparasitic drugs for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) constitutes a global urgency and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. Thus far, primaquine (PQ) is the only transmission-blocking antimalarial that is clinically available, displaying marked activity against gametocytes of all causative species of human malaria (Plasmodium spp.). Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is another PQ-sensitive illness besides malaria. One of the major drawbacks of PQ is its metabolism into carboxyprimaquine (CPQ), which is less active than the parent drug. In this study, we developed different synthetic pathways to confer N-protection to PQ through introduction of thioxo-imidazolidin-4-one. The introduction of this group prevents the formation of CPQ, counteracting one major drawback of the parent drug. After that, we evaluated the potential biological activity of the novel 2-thioxo-imidazolidin-4-one derivative of PQ, which showed relevant in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi (IC50 1.4 μM) compared to PQ (IC50 1.7 μM) and the reference drug benznidazole (IC50 1.6 μM). Noting its acceptable pharmacokinetic profile, this PQ conjugate may be a potential scaffold for novel drug exploration against Chagas disease.
By Mariana Pereira, Guy Caljon, Maria João Gouveia, Louis Maes and Nuno Vale