Toxicity is a measure of any unfavourable or negative impact of substances. Toxicity endpoints, such as carcinogenicity or genotoxicity, are certain sorts of unfavourable effects that can be quantitative (e.g., LD50: deadly dosage to 50% of tested individuals)1 or qualitative, such as binary (e.g., toxic or nontoxic) or ordinary (e.g., low, moderate, or high toxicity). Toxicity studies seek to discover the adverse effects of chemicals on humans, animals, plants, or the environment via acute (single dosage) or repeated exposures (multiple doses). The toxicity of chemicals is determined by a number of factors, including the route of exposure (e.g., oral, dermal, or inhalation), the dose (amount of the chemical), the frequency of exposure (e.g., single versus multiple exposure), the duration of exposure (e.g., 96 h), ADME properties (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion/elimination), biological properties (e.g., age, gender), and chemical properties.
By S. Singh, Dr. Mohammad Gousuddin