Understanding Interindividual Variability in the Drug Interaction of a Highly Extracted CYP1A2 Substrate Tizanidine: Application of a Permeability-Limited Multicompartment Liver Model in a Population Based Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Framework

Publication: Drug Metab Dispos
Division: Simulations Plus


Tizanidine, a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant, is predominantly metabolized by CYP1A2 and undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism after oral administration. As a highly extracted drug, the systemic exposure to tizanidine exhibits considerable interindividual variability and is altered substantially when coadministered with CYP1A2 inhibitors or inducers. The aim of the current study was to compare the performance of a permeability-limited multicompartment liver (PerMCL) model, which operates as an approximation of the dispersion model, and the well stirred model (WSM) for predicting tizanidine drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed for tizanidine, incorporating the PerMCL model and the WSM, respectively, to simulate the interaction of tizanidine with a range of CYP1A2 inhibitors and inducers. Whereas the WSM showed a tendency to underpredict the fold change of tizanidine area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC ratio) in the presence of perpetrators, the use of PerMCL model increased precision (absolute average-fold error: 1.32–1.42 versus 1.58) and decreased bias (average-fold error: 0.97–1.25 versus 0.63) for the predictions of mean AUC ratios as compared with the WSM. The PerMCL model captured the observed range of individual AUC ratios of tizanidine as well as the correlation between individual AUC ratios and CYP1A2 activities without interactions, whereas the WSM was not able to capture these. The results demonstrate the advantage of using the PerMCL model over the WSM in predicting the magnitude and interindividual variability of DDIs for a highly extracted sensitive substrate tizanidine.

By Mian Zhang, Ciarán Fisher, Iain Gardner, Xian Pan, Peter Kilford, Frederic Y. Bois and Masoud Jamei