Food can alter drug absorption and impact safety and efficacy. Besides conducting clinical studies, in vitro approaches such as biorelevant solubility and dissolution testing and in vivo dog studies are typical approaches to estimate a drug’s food effect. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models has gained importance and is nowadays a standard tool for food effect predictions at preclinical and clinical stages in the pharmaceutical industry. This manuscript is part of a broader publication from the IQ Consortium’s food effect physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) modeling working group and complements previous publications by focusing on cases where the food effect was predicted with low confidence. Pazopanib-HCl, trospium-Cl, and ziprasidone-HCl served as model compounds to provide insights into why several food effect predictions failed in the first instance. Furthermore, the manuscript depicts approaches whereby PBPK-based food effect predictions may be improved. These improvements should focus on the PBPK model functionality, especially better reflecting fasted- and fed-state gastric solubility, gastric re-acidification, and complex mechanisms related to gastric emptying of drugs. For improvement of in vitro methodologies, the focus should be on the development of more predictive solubility, supersaturation, and precipitation assays. With regards to the general PBPK modeling methodology, modelers should account for the full solubility profile when modeling ionizable compounds, including common ion effects, and apply a straightforward strategy to account for drug precipitation.
By Christian Wagner, Filippos Kesisoglou, Xavier J. H. Pepin, Neil Parrott & Arian Emami Riedmaier