Utilizing Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Inform Formulation and Clinical Development for a Compound with pH-Dependent Solubility

Publication: J Pharm Sci
Software: GastroPlus®


ARRY-403 is a glucokinase activator developed for the treatment of diabetes. Less than dose-proportional exposure was observed during single ascending dose studies with ARRY-403. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for ARRY-403 was developed through integration of in vitro physicochemical data with precipitation time estimations based on results from the single ascending dose studies; PBPK modeling indicated that the primary cause of the less than dose-proportional exposure was dose-limited absorption because of pH-dependent solubility. The impact of dose, particle size, and fasted or fed state on ARRY-403 exposure was examined through sensitivity analyses and used to refine the PBPK model. On the basis of the marked pH-dependent solubility of ARRY-403, the refined PBPK model was used to simulate the effects of acid-reducing agents (ARAs) on ARRY-403 exposure, as these agents are widely available and could be coadministered with ARRY-403. The simulations indicated that a clinical study with an ARA was warranted; in a clinical study, famotidine had a marked effect on ARRY-403 exposure. This approach, based on the “predict, learn, and confirm” paradigm, demonstrates the utility of integrating physicochemical properties, in vitro experiments, and clinical results using PBPK to inform formulation development and to guide clinical study design.